Back-to-back conferences of the Allied leadership in November 1943 did much to shape the direction of the remainder of the war and the world to follow. On Nov. 22-26 Roosevelt, Churchill and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of China met in Cairo, Egypt to discuss future actions against Japan. They left no doubt that Japan’s options, in their mind, were two: unconditional surrender or annihilation.
The bulletin issued from the meeting read in part: “The Three Great Allies are fighting this war to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan. They covet no gain for themselves and have no thought of territorial expansion. It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied since the beginning of the first World War in 1914, and that all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China. Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed. The aforesaid three great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent.”
Immediately following the Cairo Conference, Roosevelt, Churchill and Joseph Stalin met at Tehran, Iran. It was the first war conference among the three world powers in which Stalin was present. Associated Press called it the greatest concentration of global power ever assembled. Agreement was reached on the scope and timing of operations against Germany, including plans for the Allied invasion of France (D-Day).